Search Results for: William Hildebrandt

Is Mojave Desert Clovis Contemporaneous with Clovis Elsewhere?

Clovis Biface

In their recent article in PaleoAmerica, one of Far Western’s Principal Investigators, Ryan Byerly, and one of our Senior Archaeologists, Joanna Roberson, examine a Clovis biface and explore dating terminal Pleistocene geological deposits in Twentynine Palms, California. The type of fluted biface, made of local jasper, implies that it may have been deposited before the Younger Dryas period, and it may coincide with Clovis points dated in other locations (ca. 13,200–12,700 calibrated years before present).

“More than 30 years of cultural resources management in the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twentynine Palms, California, has produced a growing body of mostly unpublished data (cf. Sutton et al. 2007) concerning the late Pleistocene–middle Holocene archaeology of the Mojave Desert. This article highlights recent work demonstrating the presence of hunter-gatherers in the MCAGCC before the Younger Dryas, and the potential preservation of significantly ancient buried deposits in some areas.”

—Byerly and Roberson 2015

Read their article HERE.

“Late Pleistocene to Middle Holocene Archaeology in the Mojave Desert: Recent Discoveries in Twentynine Palms, California,” PaleoAmerica 1(2):197-201

The authors thank the Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs staff aboard MCAGCC, particularly Marie Cottrell, Leslie Glover, John Hale, and Nick Chamberlain, for their dedication to the management of cultural resources and providing data gleaned from those efforts for this piece. We would also like to acknowledge Mike Rondeau for taking time to analyze and identify the fluted projectile point, which was found by Devin Garvey, a Far Western archaeological technician. Geomorphological work was conducted by D. Craig Young, Andras Nagy produced the map, and Kathleen Montgomery created the other figure. Amy Gilreath manages Far Western’s work aboard MCAGCC, and Bill Hildebrandt serves as Principal Investigator for these projects. Mark Allen and three anonymous reviewers helped improve an earlier draft of the article.

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Ruby Pipeline


In 2010-2011, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, constructed roughly 674 miles of a 42-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline crossing four states: Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and Oregon. Far Western served as cultural resources prime for effects mitigation and ancillary inventory across the state of Nevada (347.4 miles of pipeline corridor plus access routes and associated facilities). The identified resource base for this portion of the project consisted of 1,066 archaeological sites or resources.

Although brought into the Ruby project late in the game, Far Western prepared and implemented a research design and treatment plan for data recovery that included construction-monitoring protocols, procedures for unanticipated discoveries, Native American participation in the data recovery and monitoring programs, a post-construction data recovery plan, and project-wide (across three BLM District Offices) reporting standards and protocols. Far Western has completed investigations and the final Class III Inventory Report and comprehensive Data Recovery Report which includes ground-breaking research on the archaeological record of Nevada’s Northern Tier, a significant Great Basin landscape. Far Western’s Public Outreach and Interpretation Program for the project includes a 32-minute film entitled Breaking New Ground – Native Americans in Archaeology and a full color 35-page booklet entitled Creating Vya – the Dream of Dry Farming in Long Valley, Nevada. The film has been sent to nearly 500 agency archaeologists and tribal representatives in the western United States. The booklet is available at BLM District Offices and Field Stations, the Nevada State Museum, Nevada Historical Society, Modoc National Forest, and Modoc County Historical Museum.


Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Public Outreach and Interpretation
Sector: Energy
Agencies: FERC, BLM, SHPO, Tribal Government
State: NV
Counties: Elko, Humboldt (NV), Washoe

Hildebrandt, William R., Kelly R. McGuire, Jerome King, Allika Ruby, and D. Craig Young


Prehistory of Nevada’s Northern Tier: Archaeological Investigations along the Ruby Pipeline Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, No. 101.

Phil Kaijankoski, MA

Philip Kaijankowski
Email Phil

Phil Kaijankoski serves as a Principal Investigator and Geoarchaeologist. He graduated from California State University, Chico in 2001 with a major in anthropology and a minor in geology. He continued to pursue his interest in geoarchaeology while at Sonoma State University where he received his Master’s in 2006. His thesis examined spatial changes in the shoreline of North America over the past 15,000 years to identify where evidence of the earliest human occupation may be found today. He has been working as a professional archaeologist since 2000, and first joined Far Western in the summer of 2004 as a temporary field technician. In 2008, Phil returned to Far Western as a Geoarchaeologist working under his mentor Jack Meyer. His role later expanded to archaeological Field Director and eventually Principal Investigator as he authored numerous excavation reports on the archaeology of the San Francisco Bay Area, Northern and Central California coast, and the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys.   

His current research interests include Holocene landscape evolution, paleoenvironmental change, and how these processes impacted people living in the past. This is applied through geoarchaeological investigations searching for deeply buried and submerged archaeological sites utilizing a variety of exploration and dating techniques. Through his experience in the San Francisco Bay Area where he resides, he has become an expert on successfully conducting subsurface testing in urban settings with complex logistics. Furthermore, his background in geoarchaeology has led to a strong interest in archaeological site formation processes and he is often employed to document and analyze stratigraphically complex archaeological sites to aid in temporal component definition. 


Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Phil’s Featured Projects

  • San Francisco Water Treatment Plant Upgrades 
  • Highway 1 Relocation Project, Sonoma County 
  • Santa Clara County BART Extension Project 
  • Wahtoke Creek 


Phil’s Featured Presentations and Posters

Kaijankoski, P. B. Byrd, M. Goman, J. Meyer, and M. Palacios-Fest


Sea Level Rise and Shell Mound Inundation within the Islais Creek Estuary, San Francisco, California Society for American Archaeology Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.

Kaijankoski, P.


Where the Land Meets the Sea: Site Stratigraphy and Landscape Context of CA-SBA-1703. Society for California Archaeology Annual Meeting, Fish Camp, California.

Kaijankoski, P.


Assembling the East Bay: Subsurface Geoarchaeological Explorations for the Silicon Valley-Berryessa BART Extension

Phil’s Featured Publications

Hildebrandt, William, Allika Ruby, and Philip Kaijankoski


Middle Holocene Resource Intensification Along the Southern California Coast: A View from Goleta Slough. In Goleta Slough Prehistory: Insights Gained from A Vanishing Archaeological Record. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Contributions in Anthropology Number 4. Edited by Michael A Glassow.

Eerkens, Jelmer, Laura Harold, Katherine Perez, Engel Murga, Philip Kaijankoski; Jeffrey S Rosenthal, and Alexandra M. Greenwald


Strontium Isotopes Identify Locals and Non-Locals at CA-SCL-919 and CA-SCL-928 in Milpitas, California. Society for California Archaeology Proceedings, Volume 30.

Peterson, Curt D., Errol Stock, Jack Meyer, Philip Kaijankoski, and David M. Price


Origins of Quaternary Coastal Dune Sheets in San Francisco and Monterey Bay, Central California Coast, U.S.A.: Reflecting Contracts in Shelf Depocenters and Coastal Neotectonics. Journal of Coastal Research Vol. 31(6):1317-1333.

Michael J. Darcangelo, BA

Mike Darcangelo
Michael Darcangelo

Michael is one of our Senior Archaeologists and has worked for Far Western since 1994. He was raised in Shasta County and received his B.A. in Anthropology from California State University, Chico. Michael has worked on numerous pipeline projects throughout northern California and Nevada and enjoys the logistical challenges and remoteness which often accompanies extensive linear corridors. His research interests focus on the northern Sacramento Valley, with an emphasis on prehistoric lifeways in Shasta County.


Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Michael’s Key Projects

  • Tuscarora Pipeline
  • Hungry Valley Lateral Pipeline
  • Ruby Pipeline

Michael’s Featured Publications

Hildebrandt, William R., and Michael J. Darcangelo


Life on the River: The Archaeology of an Ancient Native American Culture. Heyday Books, Berkeley, California.

Principal Investigators


Dedicated and creative project direction and scholarship.


Kimberley Carpenter, MA

Kim Carpenter

Kim Carpenter (1967–2019)



Kim was the heart of Far Western and we will always be guided by her leadership, patience and compassion.

Kim started her career as a student and field archaeologist in southern California. After completing her undergraduate work at CSU Long Beach in 1992, she moved north, working on archaeological projects throughout northern California and the Great Basin while completing her Master’s Degree at CSU Chico. She started with Far Western as a field technician on the Tuscarora Pipeline Project in 1994, joining Far Western full time in 1998 as a project manager. The results of her research have been published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, American Antiquity, and the Nevada State Museum. She served as Vice President of the company from 2004-2015, taking over as President in 2015. She will be remembered as an exceptional scholar, businesswoman, friend, mother, and mentor.


Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Kim’s Featured Publications

McGuire, Kelly R., Kimberley L. Carpenter, and Jeffery S. Rosenthal


Great Basin Hunters of the Sierra Nevada. In Meeting at the margins: Prehistoric Cultural Interactions in the Intermountain West, edited by Dave Rhode, pp. 124-141. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Whitaker, Adrian R., and Kimberley L. Carpenter


Economic Foraging at a Distance is Not a Question of If but When: A Response to Grimstead. American Antiquity. 77(1):160-167.

Hildebrandt, William R., and Kimberley Carpenter


Native Hunting Adaptations in California: Changing Patterns of Resource Use from the Early Holocene to European Contact. In Indigenous Subsistence Economies of North America, edited by Bruce Smith, pp. 131-146. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC.

D. Craig Young, PhD

D. Craig Young

Email Craig

Dr. Young is a Far Western Principal and serves as Director of cultural resources consulting and research at Far Western’s Great Basin Branch in Carson City, Nevada. Living and working in Nevada for over 30 years,Craig has been instrumental in assisting private industry and government agencies successfully navigate the regulatory process for projects across renewable energy, transportation, communications, and natural resources sectors. His direct engagement in active research, open collaboration, and public outreach provides a foundation for creative project management and continues to build trust with resource managers and review agencies across the region.

In addition to guiding and collaborating with the skilled Far Western team, Craig is an active scientist working daily in western North America. His research interests include environmental influences and geomorphological processes affecting archaeological site formation and, ultimately, people’s interaction with a changing landscape, and he has been awarded funding for geoarchaeological studies from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Interior, and the Lincoln County Archaeological Initiative. With his colleagues at Far Western, he applies this research to efficiently evaluate archaeological resources and better understand landforms where buried archaeological sites might be preserved — all with the goal of navigating the project planning and implementation process.

Craig is also an avid photographer, musician, and trail runner.  

Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Craig’s Featured Projects

Craig’s Featured Publications


Madsen, David B., Charles G. Oviatt, D. Craig Young, and David Page


Old River Bed Delta Geomorphology and Chronology. In Paleoarchaic Occupation of the Old River Bed Delta, edited by David B. Madsen, Dave N. Schmitt, and David Page, pp. 30-60. University of Utah Anthropological Papers No. 128. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Young, D. Craig, and William R. Hildebrandt


Tufa Village (Nevada): Placing the Fort Sage Drift Fence in a Larger Archaeological Context. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of National History, No. 102. New York City, New York.

Young, D. Craig


Points on a Continuum: Three Sites in a Middle Archaic Settlement System in the Western Great Basin. In Archaeology in the Great Basin and the Southwest: Papers in Honor of Don D Fowler, edited by Nancy J. Parezo and Joel C. Janetski, pp. 85-97. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Craig’s Outreach Activities

  • Society of American Archaeology
  • Geological Society of America
  • Nevada Archaeological Association
  • Society of California Archaeology
  • Register of Professional Archaeologists

Staff Directory


The key to our success is the diverse group comprising the permanent staff of Far Western. This award-winning team includes Ph.D. and M.A./M.S.-level archaeologists and cartographers, along with data specialists, laboratory scientists, designers and graphic artists, and dedicated field technicians.


Historical Archaeologists

Cassidy DeBaker, MA

Sharon Waechter, MA

Melinda Pacheco Patrick, MA ext. 106

Vickie Clay, MS ext. 215

Allen McCabe, BS  ext. 212

Laboratory and Collections Management

Laura B. Harold, MA – Laboratory Director

Eric Wohlgemuth, PhD – Archaeobotany Director

Kasey O’Horo, MA – Desert Branch Laboratory Director

Angela Armstrong-Ingram, BS

Anthony Aviles, BA

Jill Eubanks, MA

Patricia Galindo Arias, BA

Lucas R.  Martindale Johnson, PhD

Alexxandria Martinez, BA

Nikki Wu, BA

Data Management

Kaely R. Colligan, BA – Data Director

Martha Diaz-Longo, MA

Ariadna Gonzalez Aguilera, BA

Carolina Gonzalez Aguilera, BA

Cristina Marandici, MARA

Monique Sanchez, BA

Staff Archaeologists

Paul Allgaier, MS

Angela Armstrong-Ingram, BS

Emily Bales, BA

Sara Boomgaarden, BA

Alex Castillo, BA

Cameron Caywood, BA

Rachel Davies, BA

Brieann DeOrnellas, BA

Martha Diaz-Longo, MA

Jill Eubanks, BA

Patricia Galindo Arias, BA

Denay Grund, MA

Kathleen Hanrahan, BA

Rhea Hartwell, BA – Assistant Project Manager

Melissa K. Johnson, BS, BA

Martijn Kuypers, BA

Lauré Kwoka, BA

Margo Meyer, BA

Monique Sanchez, BA

Luci Simpson, BS

Nikki Wu, BA

Eleni Ziogas, BA

GIS and Cartography Specialists

Paul Brandy, MA – Director

Shannon DeArmond, BS, GISP – GIS Supervisor

Jill Bradeen, BA

Michael Bancroft, BS 

Kyle Deutsch, BS

Chelsea Karthauser, MS

Andras Nagy, MA

Darla Rice, BA

Emery Schreckengost, BS

Graphic Design and Publishing

Tammara Ekness Norton, BA – Art Director

Michael Pardee – Production Manager

Nora Cary, BA

Kathleen Montgomery, BA

Jacquie Kramm, BA

Liz Sterling, BA


Brian F. Byrd, PhD – Proposal Team Lead

Melissa Johnson, BS, BA –  Proposal Coordinator

Israel Artega – Project Accountant

Monika Chavez – Project Accountant

Christina Creen – Project Accountant

Vanessa Dizon – Logistics Coordinator (Desert Branch)

Erin Eason – Human Resources

Lynda Fawcett – Project Accountant

Sukhraj Jhutty – Project Accountant

Harkiran Kaur, BA – Accounts Payable

Ashley Langer – Finance Manager

Samantha Riding – Project Accountant

Ozlem StClair – Safety Coordinator

Valarie Townsend – Logistics Coordinator

Jerry Tarner – Nevada Administrative Lead

Ashley Tanner – Operations Supervisor