Search Results for: William Hildebrandt

Published: Prehistory of Nevada’s Northern Tier
American Museum of Natural History Anthropological Papers
Number 101

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Far Western is proud to present the publication of

Prehistory of Nevada’s Northern Tier: Archaeological Investigations along the Ruby Pipeline

By WILLIAM R. HILDEBRANDT,
KELLY R. MCGUIRE, JEROME KING, ALLIKA RUBY, and D. CRAIG YOUNG


With Contributions by David Rhode, Jeffrey Rosenthal, Pat Barker, Kaely Colligan, William Bloomer, Albert Garner, Nathan Stevens, Andrew Ugan, Kimberley Carpenter, Laura Brink, Sharon Waechter, Richard Hughes, Tom Origer, Sharlyn Street, and Wendy Pierce.

The 101st edition of the Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History

The Anthropological Papers is a monograph series that has been publishing important anthropological and archaeological studies for over 100 years, continuously since 1907. Noteworthy scholars that have contributed to the series include Franz Boas (often considered the father of American anthropology), Robert Lowie, Alfred Kroeber, Pliny Earle Goddard, Clark Wissler, Margaret Mead, David Hurst Thomas, and Robert Bettinger.

The series focuses on large-scale studies with national and international significance, geared toward a professional, scientific audience. It is distributed to every significant research library in the country, and many international facilities as well. It is now available online.

In one of the most prestigious outlets in the world, the publication demonstrates Far Western’s world-class research. The Anthropological Papers allows Far Western to reach a very large audience—an audience which wouldn’t be reached otherwise.

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All issues of Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History are available on the web from:
http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace

Order printed copies on the web from:
http://shop.amnh.org/a701/ap101-2016-prehistory-of-nevada-s-northern-tier.html

or via standard mail from:
American Museum of Natural History—Scientific Publications
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Abstract
Prehistory in Nevada's Northern Tier: Archaeological Investigations along the Ruby Pipeline
The Ruby Pipeline originates in Opal, Wyoming, travels westward across Utah and Nevada, and terminates in Malin, Oregon. Almost 360 miles of the line is in Nevada, where it crosses through some of the most remote, sparsely populated land in the lower 48 states. Despite the remote nature of this corridor, it has produced a rich archaeological record reflecting a dynamic history of land-use pattern changes over a period of at least 13,000 years. Archaeological excavations were conducted at 578 prehistoric sites prior to construction of the pipeline. The sites were distributed across four ecological regions, including (from west to east): the High Rock Country, Upper Lahontan Basin, Upper Humboldt Plains, and Thousand Springs Valley. First evidence of human occupation dates to the Paleoindian (14,500-12,800 cal b.p.) and Paleoarchaic (12,800-7800 cal b.p.) periods, when people spent most of their time in the High Rock Country where important economic resources reached their highest densities. Paleoindian findings are limited to a series of Great Basin Concave Base projectile points and small obsidian flaked stone concentrations. Paleoarchaic sites are much more common, and tend to be represented by Great Basin Stemmed projectile points, bifaces, and a limited number of other flaked stone tools. Most of these assemblages reflect small groups of hunters refurbishing their tool kits as they traveled through the area. An important exception to this pattern was found at Five Mile Flat along the west end of pluvial Lake Parman where two significant habitation sites dating to 11,180 cal b.p. were discovered. One of these sites includes a house floor, which is the oldest ever found in the Great Basin. Despite the warm-dry conditions that characterized much of the middle Holocene, it appears that human populations nearly doubled during the Post-Mazama Period (7800-5700 cal b.p.). Most activity remained concentrated in the High Rock Country, but evidence for occupation begins to trickle out into the Upper Lahontan Basin and Upper Humboldt Plains regions as well. Most of the artifact assemblages remain rather narrow, often composed of Northern Side-notched and Humboldt Concave Base points, bifaces, and debitage, and reflect use of the region by mobile groups of hunters. Major changes took place with the arrival of the Early Archaic (5700-3800 cal b.p.) and continued forward into the Middle Archaic Period (3800-1300 cal b.p.). Early Archaic projectile points are largely represented by Humboldt and Gatecliff forms. It appears that population densities increased almost fourfold from the preceding interval, and all four regions experienced significant occupation for the first time. Simultaneous to this population increase and dispersal, a full complement of site types began to emerge, with large-scale residential areas becoming significant for the first time. This trend continued forward into the Middle Archaic Period where the relative frequency of residential sites almost doubled compared with the Early Archaic interval. Plant macrofossil and archaeofaunal assemblages also become more abundant and diversified at this time, probably marking a broadening of the diet breadth. This general trajectory extends into the Late Archaic (1300-600 cal b.p.) and Terminal Prehistoric periods, as people continued to expand into a wider range of habitats. This was particularly case for the latter interval, as the habitat preferences that made sense for over 12,000 years were upended, with population densities highest in the Upper Humboldt Plains and Thousand Springs Valley. This reorientation corresponds to the arrival of Numic speaking populations, especially the Western Shoshone who appear to have reached northern Nevada much earlier than the Northern Paiute, and is probably linked to a greater emphasis on small-seeded plants that are abundantly present in their territory. Although low ranked compared to many other foods, with the proper technology and work organization, small seeds could support higher population densities than was the case earlier in time. Finally, the discovery of obsidian in multiple Terminal Prehistoric sites from sources located much further away than any other time in the past may signal the earliest use of horses in northern Nevada.
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Is Mojave Desert Clovis Contemporaneous with Clovis Elsewhere?

Clovis Biface

In their recent article in PaleoAmerica, one of Far Western’s Principal Investigators, Ryan Byerly, and one of our Senior Archaeologists, Joanna Roberson, examine a Clovis biface and explore dating terminal Pleistocene geological deposits in Twentynine Palms, California. The type of fluted biface, made of local jasper, implies that it may have been deposited before the Younger Dryas period, and it may coincide with Clovis points dated in other locations (ca. 13,200–12,700 calibrated years before present).

“More than 30 years of cultural resources management in the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twentynine Palms, California, has produced a growing body of mostly unpublished data (cf. Sutton et al. 2007) concerning the late Pleistocene–middle Holocene archaeology of the Mojave Desert. This article highlights recent work demonstrating the presence of hunter-gatherers in the MCAGCC before the Younger Dryas, and the potential preservation of significantly ancient buried deposits in some areas.”

—Byerly and Roberson 2015

Read their article HERE.

“Late Pleistocene to Middle Holocene Archaeology in the Mojave Desert: Recent Discoveries in Twentynine Palms, California,” PaleoAmerica 1(2):197-201

The authors thank the Natural Resources and Environmental Affairs staff aboard MCAGCC, particularly Marie Cottrell, Leslie Glover, John Hale, and Nick Chamberlain, for their dedication to the management of cultural resources and providing data gleaned from those efforts for this piece. We would also like to acknowledge Mike Rondeau for taking time to analyze and identify the fluted projectile point, which was found by Devin Garvey, a Far Western archaeological technician. Geomorphological work was conducted by D. Craig Young, Andras Nagy produced the map, and Kathleen Montgomery created the other figure. Amy Gilreath manages Far Western’s work aboard MCAGCC, and Bill Hildebrandt serves as Principal Investigator for these projects. Mark Allen and three anonymous reviewers helped improve an earlier draft of the article.

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Ruby Pipeline

 

In 2010-2011, Ruby Pipeline, LLC, constructed roughly 674 miles of a 42-inch-diameter natural gas pipeline crossing four states: Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and Oregon. Far Western served as cultural resources prime for effects mitigation and ancillary inventory across the state of Nevada (347.4 miles of pipeline corridor plus access routes and associated facilities). The identified resource base for this portion of the project consisted of 1,066 archaeological sites or resources.

Although brought into the Ruby project late in the game, Far Western prepared and implemented a research design and treatment plan for data recovery that included construction-monitoring protocols, procedures for unanticipated discoveries, Native American participation in the data recovery and monitoring programs, a post-construction data recovery plan, and project-wide (across three BLM District Offices) reporting standards and protocols. Far Western has completed investigations and the final Class III Inventory Report and comprehensive Data Recovery Report which includes ground-breaking research on the archaeological record of Nevada’s Northern Tier, a significant Great Basin landscape. Far Western’s Public Outreach and Interpretation Program for the project includes a 32-minute film entitled Breaking New Ground – Native Americans in Archaeology and a full color 35-page booklet entitled Creating Vya – the Dream of Dry Farming in Long Valley, Nevada. The film has been sent to nearly 500 agency archaeologists and tribal representatives in the western United States. The booklet is available at BLM District Offices and Field Stations, the Nevada State Museum, Nevada Historical Society, Modoc National Forest, and Modoc County Historical Museum.

 

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation
Sector: Energy
Agencies: FERC, BLM, SHPO, Tribal Government
State: NV
Counties: Elko, Humboldt (NV), Washoe

Hildebrandt, William R., Kelly R. McGuire, Jerome King, Allika Ruby, and D. Craig Young

2016

Prehistory of Nevada’s Northern Tier: Archaeological Investigations along the Ruby Pipeline Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, No. 101.

Michael J. Darcangelo, BA

Mike Darcangelo
Michael Darcangelo

Michael is one of our Senior Archaeologists and has worked for Far Western since 1994. He was raised in Shasta County and received his B.A. in Anthropology from California State University, Chico. Michael has worked on numerous pipeline projects throughout northern California and Nevada and enjoys the logistical challenges and remoteness which often accompanies extensive linear corridors. His research interests focus on the northern Sacramento Valley, with an emphasis on prehistoric lifeways in Shasta County.

 

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Michael’s Key Projects

  • Tuscarora Pipeline
  • Hungry Valley Lateral Pipeline
  • Ruby Pipeline

Michael’s Featured Publications

Hildebrandt, William R., and Michael J. Darcangelo

2008

Life on the River: The Archaeology of an Ancient Native American Culture. Heyday Books, Berkeley, California.

Kimberley Carpenter, MA

Kim Carpenter

Kim Carpenter (1967–2019)

 

 

Kim was the heart of Far Western and we will always be guided by her leadership, patience and compassion.

Kim started her career as a student and field archaeologist in southern California. After completing her undergraduate work at CSU Long Beach in 1992, she moved north, working on archaeological projects throughout northern California and the Great Basin while completing her Master’s Degree at CSU Chico. She started with Far Western as a field technician on the Tuscarora Pipeline Project in 1994, joining Far Western full time in 1998 as a project manager. The results of her research have been published by the Smithsonian Institution Press, American Antiquity, and the Nevada State Museum. She served as Vice President of the company from 2004-2015, taking over as President in 2015. She will be remembered as an exceptional scholar, businesswoman, friend, mother, and mentor.

 

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Kim’s Featured Publications

McGuire, Kelly R., Kimberley L. Carpenter, and Jeffery S. Rosenthal

2012

Great Basin Hunters of the Sierra Nevada. In Meeting at the margins: Prehistoric Cultural Interactions in the Intermountain West, edited by Dave Rhode, pp. 124-141. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Whitaker, Adrian R., and Kimberley L. Carpenter

2012

Economic Foraging at a Distance is Not a Question of If but When: A Response to Grimstead. American Antiquity. 77(1):160-167.

Hildebrandt, William R., and Kimberley Carpenter

2011

Native Hunting Adaptations in California: Changing Patterns of Resource Use from the Early Holocene to European Contact. In Indigenous Subsistence Economies of North America, edited by Bruce Smith, pp. 131-146. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, DC.

D. Craig Young, PhD

D. Craig Young
Email Craig

 

 

Dr. Young is a Far Western Principal and serves as Director of cultural resources consulting and research at Far Western’s Great Basin Branch in Carson City, Nevada. Living and working in Nevada for over 30 years,Craig has been instrumental in assisting private industry and government agencies successfully navigate the regulatory process for projects across renewable energy, transportation, communications, and natural resources sectors. His direct engagement in active research, open collaboration, and public outreach provides a foundation for creative project management and continues to build trust with resource managers and review agencies across the region.

In addition to guiding and collaborating with the skilled Far Western team, Craig is an active scientist working daily in western North America. His research interests include environmental influences and geomorphological processes affecting archaeological site formation and, ultimately, people’s interaction with a changing landscape, and he has been awarded funding for geoarchaeological studies from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the Department of the Interior, and the Lincoln County Archaeological Initiative. With his colleagues at Far Western, he applies this research to efficiently evaluate archaeological resources and better understand landforms where buried archaeological sites might be preserved and—all with the goal of navigating the project planning and implementation process.

Craig is also an avid photographer, musician, and trail runner.  

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Craig’s Featured Projects

Craig’s Featured Publications

 

Madsen, David B., Charles G. Oviatt, D. Craig Young, and David Page

2017

Old River Bed Delta Geomorphology and Chronology. In Paleoarchaic Occupation of the Old River Bed Delta, edited by David B. Madsen, Dave N. Schmitt, and David Page, pp. 30-60. University of Utah Anthropological Papers No. 128. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Young, D. Craig, and William R. Hildebrandt

2017

Tufa Village (Nevada): Placing the Fort Sage Drift Fence in a Larger Archaeological Context. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of National History, No. 102. New York City, New York.

Young, D. Craig

2014

Points on a Continuum: Three Sites in a Middle Archaic Settlement System in the Western Great Basin. In Archaeology in the Great Basin and the Southwest: Papers in Honor of Don D Fowler, edited by Nancy J. Parezo and Joel C. Janetski, pp. 85-97. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Craig’s Outreach Activities

  • Society of American Archaeology
  • Geological Society of America
  • Nevada Archaeological Association
  • Society of California Archaeology
  • Register of Professional Archaeologists

Staff Directory

 

The key to our success is the diverse group comprising the permanent staff of Far Western. This award-winning team includes Ph.D. and M.A./M.S.-level archaeologists and cartographers, along with data specialists, laboratory scientists, designers and graphic artists, and dedicated field technicians.

 

Laboratory and Collections Management

Laura B. Harold, MA – Laboratory Director

Kaely R. Colligan, BA – Data Director

Eric Wohlgemuth, PhD – Archaeobotany Director

Kasey O’Horo, MA – Desert Branch Laboratory Director

Angela Armstrong-Ingram, BS

Jill Eubanks, BA

Patricia Galindo Arias, BA

Lucas R.  Martindale Johnson, PhD

Rosario Torres, BA

Staff Archaeologists

Angela Arpaia, BS

Gina Caretti, BA

Kaely R. Colligan, BA

Kathy Davis, BA

Laurel Engbring, MA

Jill Eubanks, BA

Patricia Galindo Arias, BA

Devin Garvey, BA

Eric Gingerich, BA

Kathleen Hanrahan, BA

Leslie Hofert

Sarah L. Izzi, MA

Melissa K. Johnson, BS, BA

Martijn Kuipers, MA

Steve Lindley, BA

Nick Longo, BA

Michele Maybee, BA

Joshua McWaters, BA

Margo Meyer, BA

Montserrat Osterlye. BA

Monique Sanchez, BA

Rosario Torres, BA

GIS and Cartography Specialists

Paul Brandy, MA – Director

Shannon DeArmond, BS – GIS Supervisor

Jill Bradeen, BA

Chelsea Karthauser, MS

Daniel O’Brien, BS

Andras Nagy, MA

Darla Rice, BA

Nicole Stotz, MS

Graphic Design and Publishing

Tammara Ekness Norton, BA – Art Director

Daniel Downey, BA – Production Director

Sorana Bucur, BA

Kathleen Montgomery, BA

Jacuie Kramm, BA

Michael Pardee

Administration

Sharon Anstead, BS – Director

Lin Wang, BA – Finance Manager

Brian F. Byrd, PhD – Proposal Team Lead

Melissa Johnson, BS, BA –  Proposal Coordinator

Nicole S. Birney, BSD – Organizational Development Director

Erin Eason

Estrella Lopez, MA

Valarie Townsend

Mariella Vigil

Jerry Tarner – Nevada Administrative Lead