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Published: Prehistory of Nevada’s Northern Tier
American Museum of Natural History Anthropological Papers
Number 101

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Far Western is proud to present the publication of

Prehistory of Nevada’s Northern Tier: Archaeological Investigations along the Ruby Pipeline

By WILLIAM R. HILDEBRANDT,
KELLY R. MCGUIRE, JEROME KING, ALLIKA RUBY, and D. CRAIG YOUNG


With Contributions by David Rhode, Jeffrey Rosenthal, Pat Barker, Kaely Colligan, William Bloomer, Albert Garner, Nathan Stevens, Andrew Ugan, Kimberley Carpenter, Laura Brink, Sharon Waechter, Richard Hughes, Tom Origer, Sharlyn Street, and Wendy Pierce.

The 101st edition of the Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History

The Anthropological Papers is a monograph series that has been publishing important anthropological and archaeological studies for over 100 years, continuously since 1907. Noteworthy scholars that have contributed to the series include Franz Boas (often considered the father of American anthropology), Robert Lowie, Alfred Kroeber, Pliny Earle Goddard, Clark Wissler, Margaret Mead, David Hurst Thomas, and Robert Bettinger.

The series focuses on large-scale studies with national and international significance, geared toward a professional, scientific audience. It is distributed to every significant research library in the country, and many international facilities as well. It is now available online.

In one of the most prestigious outlets in the world, the publication demonstrates Far Western’s world-class research. The Anthropological Papers allows Far Western to reach a very large audience—an audience which wouldn’t be reached otherwise.

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All issues of Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History are available on the web from:
http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace

Order printed copies on the web from:
http://shop.amnh.org/a701/ap101-2016-prehistory-of-nevada-s-northern-tier.html

or via standard mail from:
American Museum of Natural History—Scientific Publications
Central Park West at 79th Street
New York, NY 10024

Abstract
Prehistory in Nevada's Northern Tier: Archaeological Investigations along the Ruby Pipeline
The Ruby Pipeline originates in Opal, Wyoming, travels westward across Utah and Nevada, and terminates in Malin, Oregon. Almost 360 miles of the line is in Nevada, where it crosses through some of the most remote, sparsely populated land in the lower 48 states. Despite the remote nature of this corridor, it has produced a rich archaeological record reflecting a dynamic history of land-use pattern changes over a period of at least 13,000 years. Archaeological excavations were conducted at 578 prehistoric sites prior to construction of the pipeline. The sites were distributed across four ecological regions, including (from west to east): the High Rock Country, Upper Lahontan Basin, Upper Humboldt Plains, and Thousand Springs Valley. First evidence of human occupation dates to the Paleoindian (14,500-12,800 cal b.p.) and Paleoarchaic (12,800-7800 cal b.p.) periods, when people spent most of their time in the High Rock Country where important economic resources reached their highest densities. Paleoindian findings are limited to a series of Great Basin Concave Base projectile points and small obsidian flaked stone concentrations. Paleoarchaic sites are much more common, and tend to be represented by Great Basin Stemmed projectile points, bifaces, and a limited number of other flaked stone tools. Most of these assemblages reflect small groups of hunters refurbishing their tool kits as they traveled through the area. An important exception to this pattern was found at Five Mile Flat along the west end of pluvial Lake Parman where two significant habitation sites dating to 11,180 cal b.p. were discovered. One of these sites includes a house floor, which is the oldest ever found in the Great Basin. Despite the warm-dry conditions that characterized much of the middle Holocene, it appears that human populations nearly doubled during the Post-Mazama Period (7800-5700 cal b.p.). Most activity remained concentrated in the High Rock Country, but evidence for occupation begins to trickle out into the Upper Lahontan Basin and Upper Humboldt Plains regions as well. Most of the artifact assemblages remain rather narrow, often composed of Northern Side-notched and Humboldt Concave Base points, bifaces, and debitage, and reflect use of the region by mobile groups of hunters. Major changes took place with the arrival of the Early Archaic (5700-3800 cal b.p.) and continued forward into the Middle Archaic Period (3800-1300 cal b.p.). Early Archaic projectile points are largely represented by Humboldt and Gatecliff forms. It appears that population densities increased almost fourfold from the preceding interval, and all four regions experienced significant occupation for the first time. Simultaneous to this population increase and dispersal, a full complement of site types began to emerge, with large-scale residential areas becoming significant for the first time. This trend continued forward into the Middle Archaic Period where the relative frequency of residential sites almost doubled compared with the Early Archaic interval. Plant macrofossil and archaeofaunal assemblages also become more abundant and diversified at this time, probably marking a broadening of the diet breadth. This general trajectory extends into the Late Archaic (1300-600 cal b.p.) and Terminal Prehistoric periods, as people continued to expand into a wider range of habitats. This was particularly case for the latter interval, as the habitat preferences that made sense for over 12,000 years were upended, with population densities highest in the Upper Humboldt Plains and Thousand Springs Valley. This reorientation corresponds to the arrival of Numic speaking populations, especially the Western Shoshone who appear to have reached northern Nevada much earlier than the Northern Paiute, and is probably linked to a greater emphasis on small-seeded plants that are abundantly present in their territory. Although low ranked compared to many other foods, with the proper technology and work organization, small seeds could support higher population densities than was the case earlier in time. Finally, the discovery of obsidian in multiple Terminal Prehistoric sites from sources located much further away than any other time in the past may signal the earliest use of horses in northern Nevada.
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Laura B. Harold in American Antiquity

“When archaeologists find isolated crania or headless burials in situ…two potential behaviors are typically considered…trophy-taking and ancestor worship…(t)he former implicates violent scenarios…the latter has a non-violent interpretation, suggesting emotional attachments to deceased individuals from the community [Eerkens et al. 2016].

LBH

Laura Brink Harold, M.A., in the Stable Isotope Analysis Lab

Our Lab Director, Laura Brink Harold, M.A., and her co-authors argue the latter for Early-period societies in Central California in the January 2016 edition of American Antiquity in the article “Trophy Heads or Ancestor Veneration? A Stable Isotope Perspective on Disassociated and Modified Crania in Precontact Central California” citing contextual site information, stable isotope analyses, and research of regional sites.

Following discussions with the Most Likely Descendant, co-author Ramona Garibay, the team employed stable isotope analyses to determine if isolated crania associated with site CA-CCO-548 derived from local residents or non-local individuals. Samples of bone, tooth, and calculus from approximately 200 individuals began the process of reconstructing life histories for those interred at the site. Comparable isotopic results from isolated crania and headless burials support the hypothesis of ancestor veneration.

Read the abstract below or visit American Antiquity or ResearchGate.net for the full article.

Abstract: Few items in the archaeological record capture the imagination more than human heads separated from their bodies. Such items are sometimes assumed to indicate warfare practices, where “trophy heads” display power and fighting prowess. Other times, they are interpreted as representing ancestor veneration. Isolated crania are not uncommon in the Early period (ca. 4500–2500 B.P.) in Central California. Some anthropologists interpret them as trophy heads, but isotopic analyses at CA-CCO-548 suggest an alternative interpretation. Strontium isotope analyses on one modified cranium produced values consistent with local individuals, and both headless burials and people buried with extra skulls overlap in carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Further, teeth from two individuals who were buried with extra skulls suggest both were weaned at early ages (before age 2), much earlier than other individuals at the site. Together with contextual information, we argue that the isotopic data are more consistent with the hypothesis that extra skulls and headless burials represent ancestor veneration rather than trophies, shedding new light on Early-period societies in Central California.

Eerkens, Jelmer W., Eric J. Bartelink, Laura Brink, Richard T. Fitzgerald, Ramona Garibay, Gina A. Jorgenson, and Randy S. Wiberg

2016

Trophy Heads or Ancestor Veneration? A Stable Isotope Perspective on Disassociated and Modified Crania in Pre-Contact Central California. American Antiquity 81(1):114-131.

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Far Western’s Byerly and Roberson in North American Archaeologist

Image2Bison Under the auspices of the Northern Chapter of the Colorado Archaeological Society, and supported by the Colorado State Historic Fund, Far Western Principal Investigator Ryan Byerly and Senior Archaeologist Joanna Roberson, along with Assistant Professor of Biological Anthropology and Paleoanthropology Charles Egeland of the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, report on recent survey and test excavation at the well-known Coffin Bison Kill.

The Coffin Bison Kill in Jackson County, Colorado, occupies a topographic gateway between the basin and range country of Wyoming and North Park in the Rocky Mountains. Located in a valley at the headwaters of the North Platte River, which is known as “buffalo pass” to some Native groups, the site is an important point in the cultural landscape of the indigenous people who inhabited Northern Colorado and Southern Wyoming during the Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric periods. It was also a landmark for eighteenth-century Euro-American explorers and trappers.

Image1Bison

Their work at Coffin Bison Kill revealed separate activity areas including a kill area, utilizing a local rock outcrop as a drive or blind, and nearby camp and/or retooling areas. The site’s artifact assemblage included hunting weaponry and processing tools along with a wide variety of projectile points, “Shoshone knives,” and ceramics. At least three bison kill and processing events are evident. These span the late fifteenth to nineteenth centuries and imply that one of the last kill events in the region occurred around the time that Euro-American explorers entered North Park.

These findings demonstrated that the Coffin Bison Kill has the potential to contribute significant information about local subsistence economies and social interaction during a tumultuous period of Euro-American infiltration.

Read the full article in North American Archaeologist 36(4):266–288.
or on ResearchGate.net.

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Far Western at Geological Society of America

Image courtesy of Dr. Kathleen Nicoll.

Image courtesy of Dr. Kathleen Nicoll, Department of Geography, University of Utah.

 

Laura Murphy, Ph.D., represented Far Western’s Geoarchaeology department at the Geological Society of America Conference held in Baltimore, Maryland. Laura co-chaired, along with Justin Holcomb, Ph.D. candidate, a session titled: “Frontiers in Geoarchaeology,” combining 14 paper and 12 poster presentations on a variety of new field, laboratory, quantitative, and technological approaches for better understanding the archaeological record. Moreover, the session explored understudied environments, confronted issues of scale, and discussed how geoarchaeologists are building new models and paradigms to address the human and environmental past. Dr. Murphy presented a paper titled: “Toward a quantitative landscape geoarchaeology: Implications for hunter-gatherer land-use intensification and populations.” Invited keynote speakers included Dr. Rolfe Mandel, University of Kansas, Dr. Carlos Cordova, Oklahoma State University, and Dr. Kathleen Nicoll, University of Utah.

GSA
A complete list of presentations and posters can be found here:
GSA Presentations and GSA Posters

 

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Projects to Honor Native Americans

This complex project involved numerous project stakeholders that included campus officials, staff of Native American descent, students of Native American descent; campus arboretum officials; and members of the Patwin community. Tammara Norton and the other members of her team conducted numerous meetings with all project stakeholders and developed a plan to honor Native Americans on campus. Ms. Norton personally worked with campus landscape and systems personnel, and the project committee to select locations for 11 installations including a contemplative garden. All design work and the final Plan for the UC Davis Project to Honor Native Americans was completed in only 26 months. Far Western’s dedication to this project is exemplified by Ms. Norton’s volunteer efforts to see that the construction of the Contemplative Garden was completed in 2009.

In 2013, Ms. Norton completed designs for a park honoring the Chumash at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, and she is currently working on plans for a garden to honor the Ohlone in San Jose, California. Construction of the San Jose project is scheduled for late 2016.

 

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Eric Wohlgemuth, PhD

Eric Wohlgemuth
Eric Wohlgemuth
Email Eric

Eric received his B.A. and M.A. degrees at California State University, Chico, and his Ph.D. from University of California, Davis, in 2004. He has worked as a professional archaeologist since 1977. Since joining Far Western in 1985, he has conducted archaeobotanical research (the study of plant remains preserved in archaeological sites) at hundreds of sites throughout California and Nevada, and acted as Principal Investigator on a wide array of projects. He has written more than 100 technical archaeobotanical and generalist reports, including peer-reviewed publications on California plant remains.

Wohlgemuth, Eric

2016

Report on Excavations at Site CA-NAP-39,Tulucay Bridge Repair Project, State Route 121,  Napa County, California.

Wohlgemuth, Eric, Meta Bunse, Julia Costello, and Jeff Rosenthal

2006

Prehistoric Land Use and Obsidian Production in Upper Napa Valley: Extended Phase I Investigations of CA-NAP-710/H, -711, and -805, and Phase II Investigations at CA-NAP-710/H, and CA-NAP-712, along State Route 29 near St. Helena, Napa County, California

Wohlgemuth, Eric, Angela Younie, and Adrian Whitaker

2017

Data Recovery Excavations at CA-CAL-277/H for the Big Tree Creek Storm Water Compliance Project, State Route 4, Calaveras County, California.

His more general interests include the archaeology of central California, and the evolution of complex hunter-gatherer societies and their transition to agricultural economies.

Eric directs a team of archaeobotanists that specializes in the recovery and identification of charred plant remains from archaeological sites. In conjunction with remains of animals, fish, and shellfish, plant remains are used to:

  • Document prehistoric and historic-era use of food resources and landscapes.
  • Identify changes in use of native foods across time and space.
  • Reconstruct past environments and their changing patterns as landscapes evolved.
  • Contrast food remains with fuel residue through wood charcoal identification (working with Paleoscapes of Bailey, Colorado).

Far Western’s archaeobotany lab features:

  • Flotation equipment and personnel capable of processing hundreds of archaeological sediment samples.
  • A reference collection of more than 1,000 seed, fruit, root, and wood samples from California and Nevada.
  • A relational data base with quantitative and qualitative data on more than 2,500 flotation samples from central and northern California.
  • Binocular microscopes ranging from 7-70X magnification, including digital image capture capability.
  • A digital scale with resolution to 0.1 milligram for weighing nutshell and berry pit fragments.

 

 

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Tribal Liaison

A fundamental tenet of any cultural resources project at Far Western is creating and fostering collaborative partnerships with local Native American tribes and communities. These relationships are critical for discussing the identification, protection, and management of archaeological and tribal cultural resources.

What we do: 

Our Tribal Liaison team facilitates:

  • Bridging the gap between state and federal policies and the realities of implementation
  • Coordinating a wide range of consultation efforts
  • Promoting effective and ongoing communication
  • Providing a point-of-contact for THPOs, Chairpersons, and other interested Native American individuals
  • Conducting cultural resources sensitivity and awareness training
  • Developing meaningful mitigation measures

 

Far Western Liaison Team:

Ashley Parker, PhD  Email Ashley

Cassidy DeBaker, MA  Email Cassidy

Kim Carpenter (1967–2019)

Kim Carpenter

Kim Carpenter passed away peacefully on July 4, 2019, after an eight-month battle with ovarian cancer.  She leaves behind her husband Tim, her children Elsa and Ian, her father Vic Holanda, brothers Travis Bounsall and Jay Holanda and their families, as well as a wide community of co-workers and academic colleagues.  She was important to people throughout the archaeological community as a scholar, leader, mentor, role model, and friend, and she will be missed deeply.

Kim was born in Montpellier, Idaho, in 1967, and spent most of her childhood in California.  She graduated from CSU Long Beach in 1992 with a degree in anthropology.  During her early years as an archaeologist, she worked at various cultural resources management firms, including Archaeological Resource Management in Anaheim and at Biosystems Analysis in Santa Cruz.  She returned to school in 1995, entering the graduate program at CSU Chico, working primarily under Frank Bayham, where she gained expertise with faunal analysis, which remained her primary research interest throughout her career.  Upon completing her master’s degree work in 1997, she entered the PhD program at the University of Utah under Jack Broughton, but ultimately decided to return to her career in CRM rather than finish the program.

Kim began working with her future Far Western colleagues in the late 1990s on the Tuscarora Pipeline and Alturas Intertie projects, two large data-recovery projects in northeastern California that served as training grounds for many archaeologists in her cohort.  It was here, too, that she met Tim Carpenter, whom she would marry in 2000.  She took a permanent job with Far Western in 1998, and quickly distinguished herself as both a researcher and businesswoman. She became a principal at the company in 2004, serving as principal investigator and project manager on a wide variety of projects throughout California and the Great Basin. 

While working as a full-time CRM professional, she made several important contributions to the theory and practice of archaeology in the western United States. With Bill Hildebrandt, she authored a chapter on California fauna in the Handbook or North American Indians (Hildebrandt and Carpenter 2006) and a chapter on hunting adaptations in California for another Smithsonian volume, Indigenous Subsistence Economies of North America (Hildebrandt and Carpenter 2011).  She was integral to the debate regarding Middle Archaic hunting and costly signaling in the Great Basin. Her faunal data (the internally famous “Holanda table of Eastern California mammalian bone”) was the linchpin of the costly signaling  argument; she contributed to two comments that factored into the debates (McGuire et al. 2007; Whitaker and Carpenter 2012). She authored or co-authored book chapters and articles focusing on Great Basin faunal assemblages and what they could reveal about prehistoric subsistence and intertribal interactions (Bayham et al. 2012; Holanda 2004). Her scholarly contributions were not just limited to published research.  She served as Associate Editor of the Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology (2007-2012), and the Member at Large (2004-2008) and Treasurer (2012-2019) of the Great Basin Anthropological Association.

In a hierarchy of owners, supervisors, and staff typical of many CRM companies, Kim’s rise at Far Western was remarkable. A rare combination of research capabilities, managerial savvy, and interpersonal skills propelled her from backdirt to boardroom. In 2015, by unanimous acclaim, she was elected president of Far Western, and then re-elected for two more terms.

One of the most impressive things about Kim was the sheer breadth of her interests and imagination. Happy to review an invoice, discuss Human Behavioral Ecology, pitch a client, identify a bone fragment, edit a report, counsel a wayward tech, or serve on the Board of Directors of the Cache Creek Conservancy, Kim was unbounded. Companies need such a person; the world needs such people.

In the midst of her remarkable career, she also raised, along with her husband Tim, her two children, Elsa and Ian. The devotion and intensity she brought to her work didn’t miss a beat at home. It was not unusual to see Kim blow out of Far Western at 4:00 to make a soccer practice drop-off, return to work for more desk and screen time, and then make the 7:00 pick-up. All in a day’s work (along with stopping at the store on the way home to pick up dinner). This was Kim. 

As tributes to Kim surfaced on social media and in condolences offered to her colleagues, a recurrent theme was obvious—Kim as mentor. As attested by many, Kim was an exemplary teacher and role model who had the unique capability to understand one’s strengths and weaknesses, perspectives, and personal challenges. Last summer she posted a picture of movie superheroes on her office wall with the text “Everyone has a super power.”  Kim excelled at identifying and nurturing the super power in everyone.  Those of us in the void left by her absence can only aspire to follow her example, by extending the same qualities of empathy and understanding to our own colleagues and friends.

 

 

By Jerome King, Kelly McGuire and Adie Whitaker

 

Kim Carpenter’s Scholarly Contributions

Whitaker, Adrian R. and Kimberly Carpenter

         2012       Economic Foraging at a Distance is Not a Question of If but When: A Response to Grimstead. American Antiquity. 77(1):160-167.

Bayham, Frank E., R. Kelly Beck, and Kimberley Carpenter

         2012       Large Game Exploitation and Intertribal Boundaries on the Fringe of the Western Great Basin.  In: Meeting at the margins:  Prehistoric Cultural Interactions in the Intermountain West. Edited by Dave Rhode.  University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah.

McGuire, Kelly, Kimberley Carpenter, and Jeffery Rosenthal

         2012       Great Basin Hunters of the Sierra Nevada.  In: Meeting at the margins:  Prehistoric Cultural Interactions in the Intermountain West. Edited by Dave Rhode.  University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Hildebrandt, W.R. and K. Carpenter

         2011       Native Hunting Adaptations in California: Changing Patterns of Resource Use from the Early Holocene to European Contact. In Indigenous Subsistence Economies of North America, pages 131-146. Edited by Bruce Smith. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. Washington D.C.

McGuire, Kelly R., William R. Hildebrandt, and Kimberley L. Carpenter

         2007       Costly Signaling and the Ascendance of No-Can-Do Archaeology: A Reply to Codding and Jones. American Antiquity, 72(2), pp. 358-365.

Hildebrandt, William R., and Kimberley Carpenter

         2006       California Animals. In Environment, Origins, and Population, edited by Bruce Smith, pp. 284-291. Handbook of North American Indians 3, W. C. Sturtevant. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

McGuire, Kelly R., Michael G. Delacorte, Kimberley L. Carpenter

         2006       Archaeological Excavations at Pie Creek and Tule Valley Shelters, Elko County, Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers number 25.

Holanda, Kimberley L.

         2004       Reversing the Trend: Late Holocene Subsistence Change in Northeastern California. In Boundary Lands: Archaeological Investigations along The California-Great Basin Interface. Kelly R. McGuire, Editor. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers Number 24.

Broughton, Jack M., Rampton, Dominique, and Holanda, Kimberley

         2002       A test of an osteologically-based age determination method in the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). Ibis 144: 143-146.

Holanda, Kimberley

         1994       Excavations at the Laguna Springs Adobe Site (ORA- 13B): Stagecoach Waystation and Prehistoric Camp Part III. Faunal Analysis: Invertebrates. In: Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly: 30(2/3):21-24.

Cassidy DeBaker, MA


Email Cassidy

Cassidy DeBaker is Principal Investigator, Historical Archaeologist & Tribal Liaison. She graduated from University of Oregon in 2001 with a degree in Archaeology and Environmental Studies. She received her Master’s in Cultural Resources Management from Sonoma State University in 2012. Her thesis focused on the archaeology of Mission San Rafael Archangel and examined the history of indigenous and Mission-period archaeological sites in California; she is also on the board of directors for the California Missions Foundation.

Cassidy has been working in CRM for more than eighteen years as a professional archaeologist, with research, fieldwork, and analysis focused in Northern and Central California and the Pacific Islands. Her project management and compliance work with federal, state and local governments, utilities, private developers, and Native American tribes encompass a broad range of cultural resources investigations, including cultural landscape reports, archaeological sensitivity assessments, Section 106 and CEQA inventory and evaluation reports, and historic research designs. Her regulatory expertise in compliance with Section 106 of the NHPA, NEPA, and CEQA applies to both large- and small-scale projects, specifically Caltrans Standard Environmental Regulations Vol. 2 and the 2014 Programmatic Agreement, and Local Assistance programs, San Francisco Planning Department, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, California State Parks and National Parks. Cassidy has built long-standing relationships through collaboration and consultation with local Native American tribes and Native Hawaiians for nearly two decades and serves as one of the Tribal Liaisons at Far Western.

Cassidy’s past research has focused on the archaeology of islands and coastal regions, particularly in Palau (western Micronesia) and Hawaii. At Far Western she is responsible for overseeing cultural resources projects to ensure that compliance and technical investigations meet the highest standards, including contracting, budgeting, field study, research, analysis, report production, and staff training.

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Cassidy’s Professional Presentations:

DeBaker, Cassidy

2017

Assembly Bill 52 and Native American Tribal Cultural Resources. Presented at the Marin County Meeting of Mayors and Town Council Members. Ross, CA.

2017

The Rediscovery of Mission San Rafael Arcangel: The Archaeology of the 20th California Mission. Paper presented at the 200th Anniversary of Mission San Rafael Lecture Series, San Rafael, CA.

DeBaker, Cassidy, Josh McWaters, and Chris Kimsey

2017

Recreation and Stewardship on Mount Tamalpais: Documenting the Alice Eastwood Campsites, Van Wyck Campsites, and Pantoll Refuse Dump, Mount Tamalpais State Park, Marin County. Poster presented at the Society of California Archaeology. Yosemite, CA.

McWaters, Josh, Cassidy DeBaker, and Chris Kimsey

2017

The Household Archaeology of a Portuguese Dairy Ranch in Muir Woods, Mount Tamalpais State Park, Marin County. Paper presented at the Society of California Archaeology. Yosemite, CA.

DeBaker, Cassidy

2012

Mission San Rafael Arcangel: An Archaeological Snapshot of the 20th California Mission. Paper presented at the California Mission Studies Association Conference, San Rafael, CA and the Society for California Archaeology Northern Data Sharing Conference, Pt. Reyes, CA.

DeBaker, Cassidy, and Adrian Praetzellis

2011

Rediscovering Mission San Rafael Arcangel. Paper presented at the Mission San Rafael Arcangel Lecture Series, San Rafael, CA.

Board Member for the California Mission Foundation

 

Bridget Wall, MA


Email Bridget

Bridget, Senior Archaeologist, has 20 years of experience in professional archaeology. She earned her Bachelor’s degree from UC Davis in 2002 and her Master’s degree in Anthropology from CSU Sacramento in 2009. Her regional focus is California and the Great Basin, especially the eastern Sierra Nevada, and her current research interests include desert adaptations, protohistoric/post-contact resource and land-use patterns, Native American participation in wage labor economies, ethnohistory, and the use of legacy collections. She has authored or contributed to numerous technical reports, and regularly presents at regional professional conferences.

 

Inventory
Evaluation and Testing
Effects Mitigation
Geoarchaeology
Sensivity and Constraints
Environmental Planning Support
GIS and Cartography
Monitoring
Public Outreach and Interpretation

Bridget’s Featured Publications

Wall, Bridget

2014

Historical Shifts in Native American Subsistence Strategies: An Examination of Store Ledgers from Owens Valley. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 34(2):145-159.